Sunday, May 24, 2020

Writing as a Process - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 649 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/09/19 Category Literature Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Writing is a part of our daily activities. We communicate through written materials daily which are products of the writing process. For a written product to the effective there is a procedure writers and authors go through called the writing process. Writing as a process refers to the events done to come up with a finished product. Writing as a product refers to the quality control attributes. Interpretation and analysis of the questions is crucial. Understanding the question is important. It will give you key words that will help you answer effectively. Special conditions are also key and must be adhered to. Identifying the key words is critical in answering the question correctly because, the body/content of your essay must be adequately built on defining the key words. Planning is the next step. Planning includes identifying your task, analyzing the audience, gathering of information, thinking of support or objections of your idea or thought and research material that one will use. Researching is an act of planning that involves reading relevant sources adding more knowledge on the ideas one has, exploring for further knowledge of your brainstorm, and note making. When note making you can code notes with similar ideas for easier grouping when writing. An ideal plan is structured with an introduction- definition of terms major arguments evaluations, then conclusion. One can use a technique called the SQ3R when doing research. Mind tools Ltd. Increasing your retention of written information (2005:2009) SQ3R Available at: https://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newISS02. htm [Accessed: 25 Oct 2009] SQ3R is a useful technique for extracting the maximum amount of benefit from your reading time. It helps you to organize the structure of a subject in your mind. It also helps you to set study goals and to separate important information from irrelevant data This technique is abbreviated for survey, question, read, review, and revise. Surveying f or documents with related subjects, make questions of importance regarding the subject. Read and take note of all significant points. Revise all valuable points and take note, finally review to check if you have understood and remember what you have learnt. After this process one can prepare a first draft, this is a sketch noting down all information gathered . In the draft one can structure the arrangement, organization and layout of arguments in an effective way. The draft is then edited. This is a check to correct the spelling, grammar, capitalisation, punctuation, and consistency. Stephen and Kaczmarek (2004:70) define editing as ‘Editing means making surface-level changes that make the document grammatically correct’. After editing, you proofread to check for typographical errors. As with any product, the aspect of quality control is necessary. Writing as a product includes rechecking to see if one has relevantly answered the question in depth meeting the requir ements of the question or task. Your product must have covered all aspects required including the special conditions lengths and font size. Researched information must be verified, correct, and properly referenced. Presentation, transition between ideas must be smooth, laying out of points that deserve emphasis must be appealing. Organisation of ideas, coherence continuity, accuracy of content and clarifying of examples. Ensure the content is reader friendly, free from bias, logical, and builds goodwill. The language and logic must be tuned to the reader’s ability and interests. Presentation of organized and connected ideas will aid meaning and is vital. Every age group has literature designed to empower and develop one’s mind and it all manifest through exposure to reading , thus effective writing as a process and as a product are footstools of knowledge and vital to humanity . [599 words] References: Kitty. O. Locker. Stephen, Kyo Kaczmarek 2004 BUSSINESS COMMU NICATION BUILDING CRITICAL SKILLS Second Edition Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin New York America Mindtools Ltd. Increasing your retention of written information (2005:2009) SQ3R Available at : https://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newISS02. htm [Accessed : 25 Oct 2009] Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Writing as a Process" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been - 1733 Words

Where there is desire, there is hope, despair, and struggle. Joyce Carol Oates illustrates animatedly the asphyxiated struggle of desire in her short story â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?† The story narrates the life of a young girl, named Connie, and her fated and enigmatic confrontation with a strange man. Feeling trapped in her own home with her own family, Connie, a self-conscious and rebellious teenager, tries to figure out a way to identify herself with the world around her. Her desire of escaping the reality fuels her struggle to enter adulthood. Through the physical form of Arnold Friend, who embodies both the hope and the despair in Connie’s struggle, the author metaphorically portrays a vigorous and psychological pressure that Connie has to endure. The story is scripted to allude to the danger of identifying oneself through sexuality in young girls. To better understanding this cryptic story, it is important to follow the psychological processe s and conflict of Connie’s character, which help unveil the allegorical meaning of a young girl’s rite of passage through sex. In the beginning of the story, the way Oates describes Connie’s behaviors help construct Connie’s state of mind as a doubtful and vulnerable young girl. The author perfectly capture the essences of Connie’s character by illustrates how Connie has, â€Å"a quick, nervous giggling habit of craning neck to glance into mirrors or checking other people’s faces to make sure her own was all right,†Show MoreRelatedWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?1021 Words   |  5 PagesWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been? By Joyce Carol Oates A short story titled Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? tells a tale of an adolescent girl who suffers consequences of growing up in the unsupportive environment and the society preoccupied by the media. It is considered to be the most famous work of Joyce Carol Oates, an American writer, the winner of many significant literary awards and a two- time candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature. The story was firstRead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?1882 Words   |  8 PagesThrough its contrasting reality and dreamlike scenes, Oates’ â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?† uses details from a true American horror story to convey a message about society, youth and a loss of innocence. Arizona native Charles Schmid murdered Alleen Rowe on May 31, 1964. Schmid was considered a serial killer and was subsequently arrested and convicted of the heinous crimes that he was accused of. The profile of Schmid as a short man who wore makeup , wigs and altered boots to makeRead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Essay2193 Words   |  9 Pagesshort story â€Å"Where are you going, where have you been?† and Flannery O’Connor’s â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find,† readers will dismiss the idea of the existence of any similarity in the stories of a fifteen year old girl and a grandmother. However, upon closer inspection, it is easy to appreciate how these two seemingly polar opposites are actually structured to invoke the same feelings in readers and to explore the same concepts. A close examination of â€Å"Where are you going, where have you been?† and â€Å"ARead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?1528 Words   |  7 PagesThe Cultural Revolution and Sexual Desires in Oates’s â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been† The late 1950s was a time of cultural revolution which had a large influence on the American youth. â€Å"As the next decade drew near, issues such as civil rights, war, women s rights, and the sexual revolution would deeply affect many American teenagers. The conservative family values and morals that predominated in the 1950s were just beginning to be challenged as the decade came to a close† (Moss andRead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?989 Words   |  4 PagesArnold Friend, a main character founded in the short story, â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?† by Joyce Carol Oates, is often a debated by many readers to be a demon, a crazed stalker and maniac, or in fact Lucifer himself. After reading the short story and analyzing the details of the characters, Arnold Friend really stands out and leaves many unanswered questions on what the author was intending to do with this particular character in identifying who he really is. After thoroughly analyzingRead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?843 Words   |  4 PagesIn the short fiction Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? tells a story about a young 15-year-old girl named, Connie. Connie spends her time meeting boys, lounging around the house and going out with her friends. One night an unusual man makes a threatening gesture to her in the parking lot of a local drive-in restaurant. Until, one day the unusual man pulls up in her driveway in a gold colored car. The man introduces himself as Arnold Friend and asks Connie to join him for a ride. During theirRead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?1946 Words   |  8 PagesIn the short story, â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?† the author, Joyce Carol Oates, creates Connie, an average fifteen year old girl, who rebels against her parents and begins to discover her sexual appeal as she grows up. At times it seems that Connie wants to grow up too fast. All her attention goes to h er looks, music, and boys. Connie is a dynamic character who goes through an emotional rollercoaster when she meets the mysterious Arnold Friend. At first he seemed like just anotherRead MoreWhere Are You Going? Where Have You Been?1546 Words   |  7 PagesWhere Are You Going? Where Have You Been? In the short story, Where are you going, Where Have You Been? by Joyce Carol Oates, Connie flaunts her beauty to receive attention from the opposite sex and is lead to temptation. The antagonist Arnold Friend, who symbolizes the devil, shows how simple it is to take away your safe haven through sinister acts. Connie is split between how she acts and portrays herself at home, and how she acts whenever she is with her group of friends. Connie refuses toRead MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?723 Words   |  3 PagesPsycho, Demon, Dreams, Oh My! â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?† by Joyce Carol Oates is a short story about a 15-year old girl named Connie that falls in the trap of Arnold Friend. There are many interpretations to this short story, and many arguments have fought back and forth to find out the true inside meaning to find out what the reason was for Joyce Carol Oates to write this story. There are hundreds of analyses for this story out there, but I am going to just be talking about three;Read MoreWhere Are You Going, Where Have You Been?717 Words   |  3 PagesJoyce Carol Oates: Where are you going, Where have you been?† The story â€Å"Where are you going, Where have you been?† is about a fifteen year old girl Connie. Connie is like any other teenage girl acting more grown up that she really is. She is obsessed with her look and with boys. â€Å"She was fifteen and she had a quick nervous giggling habit of craning her neck to glance into mirrors, or checking other people’s faces to make sure her won was all right†(323). Teenagers are into their appearance and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rahab Free Essays

Rahab – women of the bible (a woman who Believed the truth) Rahab –â€Å" insolence†, or â€Å"fierceness†, or â€Å"broad†, or â€Å"spacious† The â€Å"Ra† part of her name comes from Egyptian idolatry, â€Å"Ra† the sun god, this is from â€Å"All the women of Bible † by Herbert Lockyer, Zondervan Publishers Rahab and the two spies are the main charactersin Joshua2. Rahab was a prostitute (her occupation). She lived, geographically and morally, on the edge of society. We will write a custom essay sample on Rahab or any similar topic only for you Order Now She lived at the time of the conquest of Canaan (the land northeast of Egypt, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, Lebanon to the north was the Hittite Empire and Bashan, to the east were the nations of Ammon and the Ammorites, Moab, and Edom) by the Israelites Her house was located on the wall of the city and was strategically placed to lodge travelers. This was a prime location for her trade. Rahab had heard of the God of Israel and aced in faith. By hiding the spies she faced the risk of being killed if caught by the authorities. However rahab knew it would take a step of faith to get her out of her present predicament. She did not intend to perish with the rest of jericho. She knew that if she did nothing- this would lead to her destruction. No one an serve two masters. She made a conscious decision to act in faith on what she heard about God. Rahab was an ancestor of Jesus(Matthew1:1-6). Her faith brought her into an immense inheritance. From a prostitute to the linage of Jesus Christ. This is what faith can do. No matter your stand in life, rrespective of where you are or who you are a simply step of faith in Jesus Christ can turn your destiny around. â€Å"By faith Rahab the prostitute did not perish with those who were disobedient, because she had received the spies in peace† – Hebrews 11:31 The life of Rahab can be found in Joshua 2, Joshua 6, Hebrews 11:31 Matthew 1:5 James 2:25 How to cite Rahab, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Basic Situation of Construction and Implementation of the Open Governm

Question: Explain about the Basic Situation of Construction and Implementation of the Open Government. Answer: Introduction Upgrade Report Administrative system requirements are mostly identified for the whole organization and implemented at every hierarchy of the company. If the software is not upgraded for bringing about a change in the organization then the improvement in the organization may be limited to a particular section of the company. Whenever there is an attempt to identify administrative system requirement then it should have a systems thinking approach which considers the whole organization as a single unit. In order to achieve success through this strategy one needs to upgrade their software modules. If the company does not go with the system upgrade then it will not be able to cope up with the changing business eco-system which it wants to cater. There may be complex processes in the organization which cannot be handled by the present software module and if not upgraded the entire system may collapse. (Zhang Zhang, 2007). Survey Requirements gathering are the procedure to investigate into the needs of a proposed software system by interacting with employees, final users, software users and others stakeholders in the same eco-system. The numerous ways through which it can be done are as follows: Interviews Interviews are effective channels to gather requirements. Companies may organize different types of interviews such as: Structured interviews, where each information to collate is pre-decided, their content of discussion follows a fixed pattern Non-structured interviews, where information to collate is not pre-fixed, more flexible and less opinionated. One-to-one interviews which are organized between two persons across the table. Surveys Companies may undergo surveys among numerous participants by investigating about their expectation and needs from the upgrade Questionnaires A document with pre-defined set of objective questions and respective options is handed over to all stakeholders to answer, which are collected and compiled. All these processes would enable to understand the requirements of various employees and also fathom their expectations from future upgradation. Preliminary Expenditure Budgets The factors among many which should guide the decision for selecting a recommendation are as follows: Economic feasibility There should be a proper cost-benefit analysis conducted before selecting the option for software upgrade. The extent of performance improvement in the long run resulting into increased revenue metrics must exceed the cost of upgradation just for the upgrade being considered. Technical feasibility This factor focuses on the fact that whether the company has enough technical resources like hardware, software, or network capability to support the application from an open source platform. If not then the company should stick to proprietary software. Also future technology changes in the industry need to be taken into account. Strategic feasibility The company must also consider the strategic impact of going for the upgrade. It might earn them a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace and change the industry dynamics as a whole. Implementation Timeline The upgradation and change management might have certain implications in terms of intangible costs such as employee dissatisfaction and an occasional dip in performance. In order to avoid this, a proper change management and training schedule needs to be planned, which would be a critical consideration for overall cost. Software licensing requirements have several legal and regulatory constraints regarding intellectual property which needs to be taken care of. If pricing constraints are looked at with the perceived benefits then having a mixed approach seems to be ideal. Report Some of the common influences of outsourcing the software licenses or going for open source software are as follow: Cost savings: The functions, services or products which are not core competency of the organization are generally outsourced to vendors who are efficient in that process or function. This leads to significant cost savings for the organization. Employee level: Since organization gets rid of the non-value adding process in an organization through outsourcing, it also helps in optimizing staffing levels. Focus: Outsourcing helps in better honing the skills of the employees through steep learning curve on the core competency of the organization without focusing on the other aspects. This leads to better productivity without utmost focus on quality. Flexibility: Outsourcing helps in freeing up of resources which can be used in other processes thereby imparting greater flexibility to the organization. However there are also certain disadvantages like lower degree of control on quality, decreased company loyalty, a complex bidding process, etc. (Vegoda Dyro, 2006). After a critical analysis of the three options at hand it seems that a mixture of open source and proprietary licensing would be better software. Quotation Specification There are several methods to ask for quotation whiles the most popular and broad ways to classify them are as follows: Request for Information (RFI) This method is used to gather information from various suppliers before taking any decision regarding the sourcing of the material, product or services. This is particularly applied when there is stiff competition among the supplier which is large in number and information asymmetry exists among them. A typical RFI contains the following sections: Table of contents Introduction and reason for RFI Explanation of scope Abbreviations or terminology Elaboration of further process which may be a RFP or RFQ Request for Proposal (RFP) This method is applied when one has decided on a particular product or service for sourcing and asks various suppliers to submit proposals so that they can be compared among themselves for their suitability. A typical RFP contains the following sections: Table of contents Confidentiality or non-disclosure agreement Primary data regarding vendor and the procedure Scope and limit of the project Expected time span Elaborate design data and requirements Commercial necessities Budget Examination and decision criteria Submission methodology Implementation Plan Implementation of any system upgradation requires efficient application of change management in an organization. While monitoring the implementation of any system up gradation, top managers should be brought on board before the implementation. Then there should be personal interaction with the frontline officers who will directly be affected with the change and explain the benefits for the chosen system up gradation. The next step would be announcement of the key features and benefits of the system change to the entire organization (Adler, 2006). Throughout the process care has to be taken to ensure the employees are being given proper training and they are comfortable with the new technology and it is not creating obstacle in their daily work. As mentioned earlier implementation of any new technology or system up gradation in an organization requires successful implementation of change management principles. There is every possibility that some problem arises in spite of necessary p recautions and in that it would not be wise at pointing out the defects in the system. The news should be broken after pointing the benefits that have been achieved through the system upgradation and the excellent job that has been done by the entire team entrusted with the job of implementation. Then it should be mentioned that further modifications are required in order to achieve complete successful implementation of the system upgradation. (Strehl, 2003). Risk Management There should be proper risk management plans applied in the organization in order to deal with a problematic situation arising during system upgradation. The contingency plan must be supported with proper disaster recovery plans so that its effect is limited on the output or production. There should be parallel systems in place which needs to be up and running to minimize the downtime and cost associated with it. Apart from that the system upgradation can be implemented on a test basis only on few systems to avoid large scale disasters and downtime (Stern, 2011). Key Performance indicators Organizations need to evolve over the years to remain relevant in the market. The need for technology change occurs when there are visible problems at different sections in the organization. The productivity reduces and cost optimization is not achieved then it augurs the requirement of new technology. The various stakeholders need to be consulted to identify the flaws in the organizational processes and ways to improve them through new technology. The industry best practices have to be identified and implemented in the organization. There is a requirement for announcing the benefits of the new technology to the whole organization (Parikh Basu, 2016). The implementation of a system upgrade is always involved with certain user issues or problems that are not used to using the version of the software. This can be mitigated through proper training and development so that the employees feel comfortable while using the software. There can seminars and workshops for training purpose, stan dard operating procedures can be established. There will always be a section of the employee who has some level of prior exposure to the software who can be roped in for training process and can help their fellow colleagues in gaining expertise in the new system (Joshi, 2010). There are several support options that can ensure smooth implementation of system upgrade with much effect on productivity. The supplier help can be taken for few days even after the implementation of the system upgrade through their trainers and experts so that they can help the employees of the organization. As mentioned earlier few employees who have prior exposure to the software can pitch in to help their colleagues. Finally the system upgrade can be implemented in phases so that the training can be implemented with a more focused approach that later become a resource for the organization for further training of their colleagues (Dobosz Szymański, 2011). The following KPIs can be utilized Increase in revenue in 1 year Increase in revenue in 5 years Cost of upgradation Cost of training, scheduling and change management Employee satisfaction over the complete implementation and adaptation period Client satisfaction post implementation Conclusion Hence, it is clear that administrative system requirements are identified for the entire system of organization and even implementation is to be done for each hierarchy in the company. Requirements gathering procedure is used for understanding the need of any proposed software system. Few of the decision making steps revolve around technical and economic feasibility and also as per the requirements. Few of the benefits of outsourcing software are flexibility, cost saving and optimizing the employee level. It can be said that company needs to keep evolving with respect to technology in order to stay in the market and the need for changing technology becomes high when problems become visible in different levels of organization. References Adler, J. (2006). Basic situation of construction and implementation of the open government information system in Chongqing municipality. Government Information Quarterly, 23(1), 4857. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2006.02.002 Dobosz, J. Szymański, B. (2011). An implementation of relational interface to an information retrieval system. Information Systems, 6(3), 219228. Doi: 10.1016/0306-4379(81)90024-7 Joshi, K.. (2010). Reorganization of the work system for successful information systems implementation. Information Management, 19(4), 271284. Doi: 10.1016/0378-7206(90)90036-h Parikh, J. Basu, A. (2016). Effect on system performance due to Upgradation of 2G/3G system to LTE. International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies, 6(1), 1122. doi:10.5815/ijwmt.2016.01.02 Stern, A.. (2011). Supporting the need for electronic medical records (EMR) system implementation for diabetes management within a general internal practice setting. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 7(1), e11. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.09.028 Strehl, F. (2003). Implementation of a new performance appraisal system and the problems of organizational change. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 59(1), 8397. Doi: 10.1177/002085239305900106 Vegoda, P. R. Dyro, J. F. (2006). Implementation of an advanced clinical and administrative hospital information system. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 3(4), 259268. Doi: 10.1007/bf01724394 Zhang, J. Zhang, H. (2007). Design and implementation of sales management information system. Modern Applied Science, 1(4), doi:10.5539/mas.v1n4p60

Monday, March 30, 2020

Microbiology Notes free essay sample

His masterpiece sculptor â€Å"David†, was made between 1501 and 1504 C. He was a French sculptor and poet D. Created the famous fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome Branches of Microbiology Medical Microbiology Industrial Microbiology Environmental Microbiology Agricultural Microbiology Legumes +N2-fixing microorganisms Microorganisms have important role in cycling plant nutrients (N, P, C, S) Cattle production depends on rumen microorganisms Biotechnology Food production (Dairy products (ogurt, cheese) sauerkraut, pickles, sausage, bread, beer, wine etc. Bioremediation (detoxification by use of microorganisms Genetic Engineering (manipulation of genes in order to create new products) * Who started Microbiology? Antoine van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch merchant The first person to see microbes as being ALIVE! Father of bacteriology * * What Leeuwenhoek could see? Different shapes of bacteria Red blood cells, spermatozoa, plant and animal cells Magnification of his micro scope was 32X Robert Hooke’s Microscope Compared to Leeuwenhoek’s Robert Hook introduced the compound microscope (objective lens + ocular lens) Robert Hook (1665) reported that the smallest biological structural unites were â€Å"little boxes†-cells CELL THEORY- all living things are composed of cells Golden Age of Microbiology (1830-1900) Scientists searched for answers to the following questions: Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible? What causes fermentation? What causes disease? How can we prevent infection and disease? Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible? Aristotle proposed spontaneous generation-living things can arise from non-living matter Toads and snakes could be born of moist soles Maggots could arise from corpses Francesco Redi’s Experiment, 1670s Flies with meat 1765 Lazzaro Sallanzani conducted experients to disprove the doctrine of spontaneous generation biolied infusion, hermetically sealed the container. We will write a custom essay sample on Microbiology Notes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Nly a small crack in the neck was sufficient to allow penetration and development of â€Å"animalcules† in the infusion. Nicholas Appert patented his invention and established a business to preserve a variety of food in sealed bottles-canning Finally! Arguments about spontaneous generation resolved by Louis Pasteur Read about Louis Pasteur’s experiment How he really did it? Pasteur’s S-shaped flask kept microbes, but let in (Swan Neck Flask) Joseph Meister First person to be treated by Louis Pasteur against rabies Pasteur’s Discoveries Performed the most convincing experiment disproving the theory of spontaneous generation Role of yeast in alcohol fermentation Devised the process of pasteurization and basis of aseptic techniques Disease of vine-cold be prevented by heating the wine for a short time to a temp of 55-60 degrees Celsius The first preventive treatment for rabies What causes disease? Pasteur developed germ theory of disease, but had no proof†¦began working on Anthrax, but could not get a cure Robert Koch Studied causative agents of disease Gave the first proof that bacteria causes disease (by isolating the anthrax bacillus in pure culture)-germ theory of disease Perfected the technique of isolating bacteria in pure culture-solid media-boiled potato Discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis-the organism causing the tuberculosis. Tuberculin-substance used for diagnosis of tuberculosis Excreted into liquid culture and if there is an allergic reaction than the person has tuberculosis Introduced the staining procedure for M. tuberculosis (acid fast staining) First to stain bacterial smears Discovered the causative agent of cholera 1905 received the Nobel Prize for Medicine Koch’s postulates Identify criteria for proving that a specific type of a microorganism causes a specific disease: 1. The microorganism should be constantly present in a diseased animal 2. The microorganism must be cultivated in pure culture 3. When inoculated into a healthy animal, such microorganism should cause characteristic disease symptoms 4. The microorganism should be re-isolated from the experimental animal, and it should have the same characteristics as the original microorganisms Ignaz Semmelweis e implemented that if doctors wash their hands they would reduce spreading germs Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Father of modern surgery Became aware of Louis Pasteur’s work (rotting and fermentation) Applied antiseptic (carbolic acid) treatment for prevention and care of would infection Introduced the procedure of disinfection of operating rooms Edward Jenner Performed the first vaccinat ion against small pox Chemotherapy (treatment of disease by using chemical substances) the first antibiotic was discovered by accident was penicillin Alexander Fleming-1928 discovered penicillin Produced by mold: Penicillin Crysogenum Commercial production started in 1945 in the US Problems with Antibiotics Can be toxic to humans Spread of new varieties of resistant microorganisms Development of techniques that facilitated further progress of microbiology Pure cultures (clone) is a culture consisting of only one type of microorganisms Use of Petri dishes Aseptic techniques Bacteria as distinct species Development of microbiology in the 20th century Bacteriology study of bacteria. Mycology study of fungi. Fungal infections rising Parasitology study of protozoa and parasitic worms Immunology study of immunity. Virology study of viruses. Cannot be seen by a microscope, you need an electro microscope (Dimitri Iwanowski, reported on the presence of infectious agents much smaller than bacteria. He discovered the tobacco mosaic virus) Recombinant DNA technology fragments of foreign DNA can be incorporated into bacterial genome The Establishment of the Scientific Method Scientific method-based on an experimental system It includes: 1. Observation and description a phenomenon 2. Formulate a hypothesis to explain the phenomena 3. Performance of experimental tests (to confirm hypothesis) If supported hypothesis becomes theory Joseph Lister He was born in 1827 in Upton, England Attended London and Edinburgh Universites Joseph Lister was educated in Edinburgh. Edinburgh is located in Scotland Scotland is an independent state Scotland is part of Great Britain Scotland is a province in France Scotland is part of Canada Why Chemistry? Bacteria subcellular structures complex molecules simple molecules atoms Atoms Building blocks of molecules Subatomic particles Shell Electrons rotate about the nucleus in their orbitals Nucleus Protons Neutrons Atoms do not carry charge Electron Orbitals and Shells Electrons rotate around the nucleus in orbitals (pathways) Low level energy electrons Nearest to the nucleus 1st shell-1 orbits (2e) 2nd shell- 4 orbitals (up to 8 e) 3rd shell-9 orbitals (up to 18e) Elements Each element contains characteristic number of protons and electrons-position in the table There are 118 known elements Elements in groups of similar properties Biologically important atoms 11 elements are of biological importance The Fathers of the Periodic Talbe Dmitri Mendeleev Lothar Meyer Isotopes Have a different number of neutrons; same physical properties Some isotopes have unstable nuclei-emit energy-radioactivity Significance in Biology Tracing atoms and molecules in metabolic reactions Diagnostic purposes Sterilization (gamma irradiation) Video Notes: Charges of protons and electrons are equal in magnitude Isotopes are identical to each other but sometimes vary in properties Carbon 12 and 13 are stable Carbon 11, 14, 15 are not Radiactivity Henri Becquerel-mysterious rays * Molecules Two or more atoms combined form a molecule-a new compound has new characteristics Compounds are formed when atoms are, donate or lose electrons Number of electron in outer shell-valence Determines the readiness of an element to react with other element How the atoms bind together? Through the chemical bonds Covalent bonds Ionic bonds Hydrogen bonds Covalent Bonds Bonds between atoms that share electrons Electrons are not shared equally- change of polarity Hydrogen molecule H2 Water molecule is polar Ionic Bonds Electrons are transferred from one atoms to another When valences complement each other Ex- NaCl (table salt) 7 is not stable Ionization Dissociation of molecules (atoms) into charge particles: Cations (+) Anions (-) When added to water, crystals of NaCl get ionized-Na+ Cl- Electrolytes-conduct electricity: acids, bases, salts When two electrodes are put together Each ion becomes hydrated-surrounded by water molecules Hydrophilic molecules attracts water Hydrophobic molecules repel water (benzene- a non-polar molecule) Hydrogen Bonds Attractive forces between nearby molecules Ex. Water molecules; proteins and DNA Represented with dotted line Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-losing electron Reduction-receiving electrons Chemical formulas Atomic symbols and number of atoms in a molecule: H2O Do not provide information on position of bonds between atoms C6H12O6 glucose and fructose Reactions Synthesis reaction Equation must be balanced Decomposition reactions Larger molecule is broken up in two smaller units 2H2+Ox 2H2O Solutions Mixture of substances solute- (solid, gaseous, liquid) in the solvent (liquid) Water is the most common solvent * * Acidity, Alkalinity, pH * Solutions can be acidic or basic H2H+ + OH- ionization of water H+H+ + OH- access of H+ acidic pH pH=_log [H+] pH1 =0. 1 mole H=/liter ph 2+0. 01 mole H+/liter Inorganic and Organic Compounds Compounds can be: Inorganic ( do not have C and H combined) NaCl, CaCO3†¦ Organic (CH4)-complex compounds with C boned to other atoms The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon is the fundamental element of life- Why? Molecular skeleton Have 4 electrons in outer orbital-can form 4 bonds Most often forms stable bonds with C H O N S and P Functional Groups Carbon binds to other atoms via molecular groups-functional groups Functional groups determin characteristics of a molecules Carbodroxyl-fatty acids, proteins, organic acids Amino- proteins, nucleic acids Macromolecules Smaller molecules (monomers) are assembled into larger compounds-macromolecules (polymers) **Table 2. 3 and Table 2. 4 ** Classes of Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Have 3-7 atoms Pentose (5 Carbons) Hexose (6 carbons) Glucose Disaccharides Sucrose Polysaccharides Glycosidic Bonds Bonds between two sugars Carbons from two molecules are bonded via oxygen with release of H2O molecule Function of Polysaccharides Provide structural support (cell wall) Nutrient and energy storage Some examples Cellulose Agar Chitin-present in insects Peptidoglycan-polysaccaharide makes up cell wall of bacteria Glycocalyx- surrounds bacterial cell and provides protection Lipids Not soluble in water Classes of Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Steroids Waxes Synthesis of Triglycerides Glycerol bonds with three molecules of fatty acds through ester bonds Dehydration (need more) Biological Significance of Lipids Storage material (triglycerides) Membrane lipids Phospholipids Hydrophilic and hydrophobic portion Cholesterols Provides support to the cell wall of some bacteria Proteins Composed of amino acids Assembled together through peptide bonds Peptide: short chain of amino acids Polypeptide (proteins): long chains of amino acids Protein structure determines its functionality: Primary-long chain of amino acids Secondary Tertiary Quaternary- complex molecule * * Peptide Bonds Bond between amino group of one AA and carboxyl groups of another AA Proteins are made up of 20 AA Look at list the Waterstreet gave us The Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA; informational molecules Contain genetic information Composed of nucleotides Nucleotides composed of: Bases Sugars Phosphate The Double Helix of DNA Held together by nucleotides ATP: the energy molecule of cells Adenosine triphosphate contains Adenine Ribose Three phosphates Gives off energy when the bond is broken and one phosphate group removed Marie Curie Pioneered research on radioactivity Theory of radioactivity Discovered two elements: polonium and radium The first female professor at the University of Paris The first Nobel st Nobel prize- in physics 2nd Noble prize in chemistry Marie Curie was born in France England Poland Austria General Laboratory Techniques-5 I’s Inoculation Incubation Isolation Inspection Identification Inoculation Introducing a sample (the inoculum) into a container with a nutrient medium The medium contains appropriate nutrients that sustains the growth of microorganisms Some micro bes have to be inoculated into a living organism Isolation: Separating one species from another Obtaining pure culture Cultures composed of cells arising from a sing cell-PURE CULTURES Obtaining Pure Culture Streak plate method Petri plate Material picked up from somewhere and put at the tip of inoculation needle Dilution method Transfers to build bacteria in the petri plates Types of Media Physical State Liquid Solid (agar) Chemical composition Synthetic Nonsynthetic (complex) Functional type General purpose Enrichment Selective Differential Measures to be taken when working with microbiological media Needs to be sterilized Prevent contamination Synthetic media Known chemical composition (NaNO3/I; glucose 2g/l) Non-synthetic (complex) media Contains chemically undefined components (Pepton, beef extract†¦) Enrichment medium- supports the growth of a specific group of microorganisms (Ex. N2-fixing) Selective media-favor specific microorganisms and inhibits the others (methylene blue inhibits the growth of Gram+ bacteria) Differential media-contain substances that permit detection of microorganisms with specific metabolic activity E. coli (red) Incubation Microbiological cultures are placed temperature-controlled chamers-incubators Temperature: 20-40 C Pathogenic: 37 C MICROSCOPE-The Instrument Microscopes are the instruments that magnify the cell (object) to extent at which the cell details become visible Leeuwenhoek’s microscope had one lens Robert Hooke invented the compound microscope Microscope- The Basic Principle The specimen is magnified with the objective lens (real image) This image is magnified by ocular lens (virtual image) An enlarged and inverted image is received by retina Basic features of microscopy Magnification Resolution Contrast Magnification Magnification is the result of light refraction Mag=Objective powerx Ocular lens power Ex: Objective lens: low power lens=10x Ocular lens power=10x Mag=10x 10=100x * * Your objective lenses are color coded 4x- red 10c-yrlloe 40x-blue 100-black Use of immersion oil with high power objectives Immersion oil has the same refractive index as the glass Between glass cover slip and slide Used only with 100x lens magnification Refractive index is a measure of relative velocity at which light passes through material Resolution Resolution (resolving power) is the ability of a lens to distinguish two adjacent points as two separate objects. In light microscopes resolution is 0. 2 micrometers (limit 2,000x) High resolution-further apart Low resolution-closer together Which images can be resolved? Lower than 0. 2 micrometers Bigger than 0. 2 micrometers can be seen with microscope How does the resolution depend on the wavelength? Resolving distance=wavelength of light/w xNA (numerical aperture) The shorter the wavelength- the greater resolution Contrast Specimen must contrast with their background This can be achieved by: Changing the refractive index of specimen Stain the specimen Refractive index- mesures of light bending ability * * Types of Microscopes * What is the illuminating sources? * Light Bright field Phase contrast Fluorescent Dark filed Differential interference Confocal * Electron beam transmission scanning Light Microscopy-Compound Microscope Optical microscope parts: Illuminator Condenser Objective lens Ocular lens (eyepiece) Dark-Field Microscopes Best for observing pale objects Only those light rays scattered by specimen enter objective lens Specimen appears light against dark background Increases contrast and enables observation of more details Bright filed vs. Dark field Microscopy When light reaches the ocular lens dark objects are seen easier Fluorescent Microscopy Fluorescence is the ability of certain substancces to absorb short wavelengths of light and emit light at a longer wavelength Fluorescence Microscopy Sputum mucus Same mucus showing Mycobacterium tuberculosis stained with a fluorescent dye Immunofluorescence Diagnostic procedure: Antibody produced against a specific bacterium Conjugate antibody and fluorochrome Treat the unknown bacterium If suspected bacteria are indeed present they will bind the tagged antibodies Ultraviolet (or near) light is used as a light source Phase Microscopes Provides better contras and more details in the cell The light rays that hit he specimen travel a different path than the rays, which do not hit the specimen Bright field looks very light Phase looks better Differential Interference Microscopy (Nomarsky) Uses two beams of light Higher resolution -D images Confocal Microscopy Uses fluorescent dyes and UV lasers to illuminate the sample An image is taken in a single plane that is not thicker than 1. 0micrometer Resolution is increased by up to 40% because emitted light passes through pinhole aperture Computer constructed 3-D images Bacillus cereus Live cells-red Dead cells-green Composite image of 10 images Each 0. 2 micrometers thickness HIV (in green) travels down the microtubules (in red) Toward the nucleus (Blue) Bacteria are seen in light microscopes Electron Microscopy Two types of electron microscopes: Transmission (TEM) Scanning (SEM) Source of illumination electron beam Advantage of using EM Resolving distance=wavelength of lig/2 Wavelength of visible light=400A Resolution (light microscopy): 2000 A (0. 2 micrometers) EM uses an electron beam as a source of illumination (1000,000 times shorter wavelength than visible light) Resolution (EM): 2 A Magnification up to 100,000 Transmission electron microscope (TEM) Image formed by the elctrons transmitted through a specimen A specimen is a thin section of material (fixed, embedded, and sliced-never alive) TEM is used for objects smaller than 0. 2 mm * The first electron microscope Constructed by Ernst Ruska in 1931 He demonstrated that a magnetic coil could act as an electron lens In 1986, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his many achievements in electron optics Ruska was born in Heidelberg Heidelberg is city in France Heidelberg University is one of the oldest Universities in Europe Heidelberg is a city in Germany B and C are the correct answers Scanning electron microscope Used to study the surface of the cell/tissue Image formed by the electrons reflected from the surface 3D view image is obtained on TV screen Preparation of specimen for optical microscopes

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Ebonics - A Language essays

Ebonics - A Language essays Since the advent of man, he has tried to communicate with each other to get their thoughts and ideas across to the other. The earliest man used some form of communication and it was much later that scripting was invented. Today the earliest writing that has been discovered are those of the Sumerians and the Indus Valley Civilization. With increasing time and age languages became an important part of communication and many were recognized for the languages they spoke. Today there is a diversity of languages all across the globe. Arabic, Chinese, Persian, English and French are the most commonly spoken languages. In schools the national language of a country is taught and other languages are not really given any importance. However people do learn different languages and make them able to communicate with a person who speaks a different language. Native Americans had their own form of communication and when people from Europe started moving in and became dominant in America, the offici al language was chosen to be English. Blacks were brought in America in the great trans-Atlantic shift and were used as slaves. Their oppression was relieved later on and the black culture came into existence. Although they distorted English, and gave rise to new terminologies, Ebonics today are widely used all across the United States by the youth. IS EBONICS OR BLACK ENGLISH A LANGUAGE? Ebonics was a term formulated by a team of Black scholars and defined the way the descendants of the slaves talk. It is thus according to them a language spoken by the slave descendants. Language expresses identity and with Ebonics the Blacks aimed to identify themselves, their culture and heritage. Language variations are also absolutely necessary in the struggle for liberation. Ebonics forms a link between the Africans in the United States and the Africans all across the world. Many mistake Ebonics to be broken English or slang that is spoken by Black kid...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Innovation and Technology Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Innovation and Technology Management - Essay Example Compared to recent decades, the current business environment has become highly dynamic and unpredictable. It has customers that are highly demanding and operate in a highly competitive environment. In order to counter these challenges, businesses have been developing new products and services the offer better experiences for its respective consumers. It is important to realize that the success of a business depends on a multiplicity of factors, besides human resource management, technology and innovations (Kleinman 2009, 13). This paper examines the importance of innovation and technology in businesses with emphasis on how these two processes have influenced the success of Apple, a company that has been known for its success in the design and sale of various consumer technologies. Businesses are started with an aim of achieving the set goals and objectives. In this case, the owners and managers have to be creative and devise strategies that can enable them to produce and distribute their goods to their identified markets in the most effective way. Many successful businesses in the world have been founded on carefully developed strategies and approaches that understand the market needs of the people. One of the ways of managing this is having a market research, which is essential in providing information on competitor strategies and the various ways in which the business can satisfy the needs of its market (Thompson 2008, 65). Developing market-oriented products and services is important for the business in order to avoid wastages in the production and distribution of its goods and services. Human resource management is critical in the success of businesses since, it empowers human capital in the business to develop policies and strategies to increase the business’ competitive advantage and market position. Human resource management involves the processes concerned with recruitment, hiring and development of business employees to make it